A microbial fuel cell (MFC) has been regarded as noble clean energy technology that can directly convert biomass to electricity. However, its low power density is a main limitation to be used as a new energy source. To overcome this limitation, we focused on the anode improvement in a mediator-type MFC using P. vulgaris as a biocatalyst. Fuel cell performance increased when the anode was coated with carbon black or polypyrrole. The best performance was observed when polypyrrole/carbon black (Ppy/CB) composite material was coated on a carbon paper electrode. Our obtained value of 452 mW m?